First grading

1. Identify the unifying ideas in biology
2. Identify the different life processes
3. Describe fermentation as biological technique used in biology.
4. Identify the parts and function of the microscope
5. Name the special tools used in research in technology such as microscope
6. Identify the useful contribution of Filipino biologist (Pedro Escuro)
7. Identify the important contributions of foreign biologist (Joseph Lister, Anton van Leeuwenhoek, Watson and crick)
8. Differentiate natural from human-made ecosystem
9. Discuss the cause and effect of the environmental issues present in the community
10. Suggest ways of minimizing or preventing ecological problems
11. Identify the different parts of the cell
a. Cell membrane , nucleus and cytoplasm
b. Cell wall
c. Chloroplast
d. Ribosome’s
e. Golgi apparatus
f. Endoplasmic reticulum
12. Describe the function of each cell parts
13. Compare plant cell from animal cell
14. Differentiate unicellular organisms from multicellular organism
15. Differentiate prokaryotic from eukaryotic cells
16. Explain that activities of certain cell organelles are used to promote food production and health
17. Describe cellular exchange of materials with the environment
18. Explain osmosis as a type of diffusion
19. Distinguish between active and passive transport
20. Identify the internal parts of the leaf that plays significant role in photosynthesis
21. Explain the requirements of photosynthesis
22. Identify the raw materials and final products of light and dark reactions
23. Explain the process of light and dark reactions of photosynthesis
24. Give scientific explanation behind farming practices
25. Describe the cell part involved in producing energy
26. Identify the raw materials and final products of respiration
27. Identify the stages of aerobic and anaerobic respiration
28. Explain the stages of cellular respiration
29. Evaluate the importance of the independency of living things for important gases through oxygen-carbon dioxide cycle

Second grading

1. Understand the interaction among cells, tissues, organs and systems in maintaining the life of an organism.
1.1 Illustrates the coordinated functions of cells, tissues, organs and system in maintaining the life of plants, animals and human beings.
1.1.1 Trace the organizational levels / levels of organization in living organism.
1.1.2 Describe the specific function of the different organizational level.
1.2 Recognize the necessity of an organized system for proper growth development and survival of organisms
1.2.1 Explain how the body responses to different changes in the external environment
2. Understand the anatomy and physiology of plants.
2.1 Describe the parts and functions of the different organ systems in plants.
2.1. A.1 Identify the parts of the root.
a. external
b. internal
A.2 Describe the function of each part.
A.3 Identify the specialized roots of some plant species.
2.1. B.1 Identify the parts of the stem.
a. external
b. internal
B.2 Differentiate the functions of xylem and phloem.
B.3 Describe the function of specialized stem in some species of plants.
2.1. C.1 identify the parts of the leaves
a. external
b. internal
C.2 Describe the functions of the different parts of the leaves.
C.3 Identify their specialized leaves in some species of plant

2.1. D.1 Identify the parts of the flowers.
2.1. E.1 Identify the parts and the function of a fruit
E.2 Identify the different types of fruits.
2.2 Requirements of plants for growth
2.2.1 identify the minor and major minerals needed by plants for proper growth and development
3. Understand the anatomy and physiology of humans.
3.1 Parts and functions of the different organ system.
3.1. A.1 Identify the parts of the integumentary system
A.2 Describe the function of the integumentary system
3.1. B.1 identify the types of muscles
B.2 demonstrate the movements of different muscle action
B.3 describe the functions of muscles
C.1 identify the parts of the skeletal system
a. external
b. internal
C.2 Enumerate the axial and appendicular bones
C.3 Identify the different types of bones
C.4 Demonstrate the movements of different types of joints
C.5 Describe the different function of skeletal system
3.1. D.1 Trace the pathway of food as it passes through the food tube
D.2 Compare mechanical from chemical phase of digestion
D.3 Identify the region of the food tube where the chemical digestion of protein carbohydrate and fats takes place
D.4 Identify the parts of the digestive system responsible for the absorption of alcohol, water and food nutrients
3.1. E.1 Identify the three major parts of the circulatory system
E.2 Name the different parts of the heart
E.3 Trace the pathway of blood on the following types of circulation:
a. systemic
b. pulmonary
c. renal
d. coronary
E.4 Describe the three types of blood vessel
E.5 Give the functions of these blood vessels
E.6 Differentiate the three kinds of blood cells according to shape
E.7 Give the important roles of RBC, WBC, and platelets to humans
E.8 Describe the formation of antibodies in humans
E.9 Compare the elements of lymphatic system and circulatory system
E.10 Determine the compatibility between the blood type of the recipient with the donor
3.1. F.1 Identify the parts and functions of the respiratory system
F.2 Trace the pathways of air through the respiratory system
F.3 Construct a lung model
F.4 Demonstrate breathing mechanism
3.1. G.1 Identify the different organs that eliminates waste materials
G.2 Identify the parts and function of the urinary system
G.3 Identify the parts and function of the kidney
G.4 Identify the parts and function of the nephron
G.5 Discuss the formation of urine
3.1. H.1 Identify the parts and function of the CNS and PNS
H.2 Differentiate CNS from PNS
H.3 Identify the three main parts of the brain
H.4 Demonstrate the function of the human brain
H.5 Give the functions of the different types of neurons
H.6 Explain the transmission of impulse from one neuron to another
H.7 Identify the functions of the different sense organ
3.1. I.1 Illustrate the different endocrine glands in the human body
I.2 Identify the hormones secreted by each gland
I.3 Explain the effects of hormonal secretions to the human body
4. Appreciate the technologies that help defective organ systems function properly.
4.1 Identify the technologies that help the defective organ systems function properly

1. Understand and Appreciate the importance of cell division
1.1 Describe the cell
1.1.1 Describe the stages the cell cycle
1.2 Differentiate the mitosis from meiosis
1.2.1 Identify and describe the stages of mitosis and meiosis
2. Understand patterns of reproduction among organisms
2.1 Differentiate sexual and asexual reproduction of organisms
2.1.1 Identify the mode of the reproduction of plants
2.1.1-A. identify the difference of sexual and asexual reproduction in plants
2.1.2 Identify the mode of reproduction of animals
2.1.3 Identify the significance of sexual and asexual reproduction
3. Understand the process of human reproduction
3.1 Describe the stages of development of the fertilization embryo and fetus
3.1.1 Describe the stages of development of the fertilized embryo and fetus among :
a. frog
b. chicken
c. man
3.1.2 Describe the process of Internal and External fertilization
3.1.3 Describe the different ways / method of reproduction by the technology (invibo, inviro)
4. Understand the problems and issues related to fertility and population growth
4.1 Analyze some problems in fertility
4.1.2 Discuss some disorders associated to fertility
4.2 Give some implications of rapid population growth
5. Demonstrate understanding of the ill effects of human sexually transmitted disease
5.1 identify the risk of contaminations of various sexually transmitted disease especially AIDS
1. Understand the chromosomal basis of inheritance and the role of the DNA as a blueprint of life
1.1 Explain the chromosomal basis of basis inheritance
1.1.2 Discuss the role of chromosomes, DNA, Genes in inheritance
1.1.3 Identify the different components of DNA
1.2 Analyze the role of DNA in the transmission of traits
2. Understand the fundamental role of chromosomes in genes in heredity variation
2.1 Discuss the relationship of chromosomes and genes
2.2 Explain the different chromosomal Aberration
2.2.1 Identify the different chromosomal aberration
2.2.2 Describe the physical appearance of person suffering from different chromosomal aberration
3. Demonstrate understanding of Mendellian principle of heredity
3.1 Analyze Mendel’s experiment on garden peas illustrating Mendellian principle of inheritance
3.1.1 Identify the 7 characteristic / traits of the garden peas of Mendellian experiment
3.2 Identify traits follow Mendelian principles of heredity
3.3 Solve monohybrid crosses given the phenotypes and genotypes of parents
3.3.1 Operationally define genotype, phenotype, homozygous offspring heterozygous alleles, hybridization, genome etc.
3.3.2 Give examples of homozygous, heterozygous, alleles/ traits
3.3.3 Describe the offspring of a particular/ gives cross
3.3.4 Predict the outcome of the cross
3.3.5 Solve dihybrid crosses given the phenotypes and genotypes of parents
3.3.6 Describe the offspring of a particular / given cross
3.3.7 Predict the outcome of the cross
3.3.8 Compare the ratio of monohybrid
4. Inter the certain traits do not always follow the Mendelian principle of heredity
4.1.1 Identify the different traits that do not follow the patterns of Non-Mendelian principle (codominaa, incomplete dominance, sex link genes, sex influential genes, hemophilia, multiple alleles)
4.1.2 Describe the different traits that do not follow the patterns of Non-Mendelian principle
4.1.3 Solve the problem involving Non-Mendelian principle
5. Understand some issues concerning advance technologies in genetics
5.1 Explain what genetically modified organism or foods are
5.1.1 Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of GMO products
5.2 Analyze the effects of genetic engineering
5.2.1 Discuss the process of genetic engineering
1. Understand the theories of evolution
1.1 Explain Darwin’s theory of evolution
1.2 Differentiate Lamarck’s theory of evolution from Darwin’s theory
2. Discuss the direct and indirect evidence for evolution
2.1 Distuinguish between direct and indirect evidences for evolution.

Third year
At the end of the third year Science Program, the learner shall have developed the following competencies:

I. Introduction
1. Appreciate the importance of chemistry to daily life
1.1 Relate the importance of chemistry to daily life
1.2 Describe the role of chemistry to society and industry
1.3 Cite contribution of chemistry to other sciences like medicine, nursing, nutrition, psychology, etc.
1.4 Explain the different tasks of a chemist
2. Appreciate the achievements of Filipino and foreign scientist
2.1 Discuss researches conducted by Filipino scientist which find application in chemistry
2.2 Cite contribution of Filipino and foreign scientist in the field of chemical technology
2.3 Express one’s feelings for the significance of the contributions of scientist in chemistry and related field
2.4 Identify the values and traits demonstrated by the above scientist
3. Appreciate and understand the uses of the different apparatus use in a chemistry laboratory
3.1 Give the uses of some important apparatus used in chemistry laboratory
3.2 Explain the safety precautions to be observed in a chemistry laboratory
3.3 Observe wise use of apparatus in the laboratory
4. Demonstrate understanding of mathematical concepts in chemistry
4.1 Recognize the importance of significant figures in scientific calculations
4.2 Identify the different mathematical concepts involved in solving problems using scientific notation
4.3 Solve problems involving conversions in length, volume, temperature, pressure, etc.
4.4 Explain the basic concepts of a mole

II. Classifying Matter
1. Demonstrate skill in identifying chemical systems and classification of matter
1.1 Differentiate between homogenous and heterogeneous system
1.2 Discuss pure substances and mixtures
1.3 describe three (3) types of mixtures
1.4 differentiate between elements and compounds in an operational manner
1.5 classify elements as metals or non-metals based on their properties
1.6 detect compounds whether acids, bases and salts, using indicators
1.7 group compounds into organic and inorganic substances using formulas
2. Demonstrate understanding of elements and compounds present in daily life
2.1 discuss elements and compounds which are basic to our daily existence like building components of teeth and bones; food preparation and medicines
2.2 identify elements and compounds use in industries which are vital to the national economy
3. Demonstrate knowledge of simple techniques in preparing, separating
and purifying matter
3.1 discuss different methods of separating mixtures
3.2 prepare useful mixtures from easily available resources in the
3.3 Separate the components of a mixture
3.4 recover useful chemicals/ materials as a result of the separation of mixtures

III. Solution
1. Demonstrate understanding of solutions
1.1 Identify types of solution
1.2 Describe the changes that occur in the dissolving process substance
1.3 Relate the changes that accompany this process to energy changes and molecular inter-action
1.4 Enumerate and explain the difference among saturated, unsaturated and supersaturated solutions
1.5 Explain the factors affecting solubility
1.6 State and explain the colligative properties of a solution
1.7 Identify the relationship of the mole concept to concentration of solutions
1.8 Solve problems on solution concentrations (% by volume and molarity)
2. Understand solutions at work in the natural environment
2.1 Apply knowledge of the importance of colligative properties of
Solutions to daily living
2.2 Relate solutions to water pollution caused by toxic substances dissolved in water (heavy metals, pesticides, detergents)
2.3 Explain the importance of electrolyte balance in the body
IV. Colloids
1. Demonstrate understanding of the properties, preparations, and uses of colloids
1.1 Classify colloids
1.2 Relate the properties of colloids to their behavior
1.3 Discuss the methods and principles applied in purifying colloids as in dialysis
1.4 Prepare useful colloids
2. Appreciate the importance of colloids in daily life
2.1 Explain how the properties of colloids are utilized in technology
2.2 Evaluate the importance of colloids to daily life
2.3 Describe the biological and environmental impact of colloids like aerosols, sprays, hair gel, and smoke
2.4 Relate the property of gas mixture to air pollution
V. Gases
1. Demonstrate understanding of the behavior of gases
1.1 Explain the properties and behavior of gases based on kinetic molecular theory
1.2 State the relationship among molecular interactions and phases of matter
1.3 Compare the diffusion of gases standard pressure and temperature
1.4 Infer the relationship between the rate of diffusion and the molecular mass of a substance
1.5 Derive from given data the relationship between volume and pressure of a confined gas at constant temperature
1.6 Derive from given data the relationship between volume and temperature of a confined at constant pressure
1.7 Relate the concept of mole to volume of gases
1.8 Define the variables that describe the state of a gas (V,P,T,n….)
2. Demonstrate problem solving skills using mathematical calculations
2.1 Solve problems involving Boyle’s, Charles’, Avogadro’s, and Dalton’s Law of partial pressure
3. Understand gas law and principles involved in some technologies
3.1 Cite safety measure to be observed in storing gases and volatile liquids
3.2 Apply gas law in explaining daily occurrences
3.3 Enumerate and explain some technologies such as pressure cooker, bicycle pump, etc. (Apply the KMT to explain some technologies such as pressure cooker, bicycle pump, etc.)
3.4 relate the properties of gases to air pollution

VI. Inside the Atom
1. Appreciate the contribution of early scientist in the development of atomic theory
1.1 Recognize the significance of the contributions of early scientists in the development particularly the Laws of Conservation of Mass, Definite Composition and Multiple Proportion
1.2 Explain how radio-active elements are utilized in the diagnosis/ treatment of diseases, the risks involved and the methods of protection
2. Demonstrate understanding of the structure of the atom
2.1 Explain Dalton’s atomic theory
2.2 Explain the law of chemical changes in terms of Dalton’s atomic theory
2.3 Analyze what cathode rays and radio-activity reveal about the atom
2.4 Explain Rutherford’s experiment to confirm the existence of the nucleus
2.5 Name and describe the sub-atomic particles
2.6 Determine the number of protons, number of neutrons, and number of electrons in an atom
2.7 Relate atomic mass to the relative abundance of isotopes
2.8 Explain how the emission spectra of elements provide evidence for the existence of energy levels, and that electrons have definite energy levels
2.9 Describe the reactivity of the atomic terms of its valence electrons

VII. order among elements
1. Demonstrate understanding of the properties of elements based on periodic atomic properties
1.1 Name the elements given the chemical symbols
1.2 State the basic of the arrangement of elements in the periodic table
1.3 Use the periodic table to predict the chemical behavior of an element
1.4 Relate the number of valence electrons of elements to their group number in the periodic table
1.5 Infer trends in atomic sizes, ionization energy, metallic and non-metallic properties and electro-negativity across the period and down the family
2. Appreciate the importance of knowing the properties of elements and how they are used in technology
2.1 Enumerate and describe the properties of elements and their uses
2.2 Explain the importance of knowing the properties of elements and how they are applied particularly in modern technologies and those concerning the environment
2.3 Discuss the importance of some alkali metals, alkaline earth metals and transition metals in the human body

VIII. Ties that chemically binds
1. Understand how atoms combine
1.1 Illustrate the formation of ionic, covalent and metallic bond
1.2 Relate the type of bond formed between two or three elements to their location in the periodic table
1.3 Deduce which atoms tend to form covalent bonds or ionic bonds given the electro-negativity values of the elements
1.4 Write formulas of covalent and ionic compound
1.5 Distinguish between molecular and empirical formulas
1.6 Compare and contrast polar and non-polar covalent bonds
1.7 Enumerate and explain the forces of attraction that exist between molecules
2. Demonstrate understanding of chemical bonds and how they relate to the properties and uses of compounds
2.1 Discuss the biological importance of certain ions to the human body and in the environment
2.2 Relate the properties of metals to the type of bond formed

IX. Changes in matter
1. Appreciate the practical applications of phase/ chemical changes
1.1 Explain the application of phase/ chemical changes used at home, in the community and industry
1.2 Recognize the importance of these applications in technologies that help improve the quality of life
1.3 Evaluate evidences of chemical changes
2. Demonstrate understanding of the laws governing chemical changes
2.1 Convert number of moles to mass or vice versa and to the number of particles (atom, ions, and molecules) or vice versa
2.2 Derive the chemical formula of a compound, given the mass ratio and the atomic masses of the elements present
2.3 Explain the Law of Conservation of mass
2.4 Determine the percentage composition of compound
3. Demonstrate the ability to use symbols, formulas, and chemical equations in explaining chemical equations
3.1 Discuss the four general types of chemical reactions
3.2 Explain the implied information derived from a balanced equation
3.3 Classify chemical reactions given balanced chemical equation
3.4 Identify chemical equations involved in chemical processes as in soap making and car batteries

X. Changes, Energy, and Time
1. Demonstrate understanding of how chemical reactions occur
1.1 Differentiate exothermic from endothermic reactions
1.2 Enumerate and explain the factors affecting rates of chemical reactions
1.3 Describe chemical reactions taking place in the decay of foods, growth of plants, digestions of foods, etc.
2. Appreciate the importance of controlling rates of chemical reaction in technology
2.1 Explain the application of Heat of reaction to commercial and industrial processes
2.2 Explain how the factors affecting rates of chemical reactions are applied in food preservation, control of fire, pollution, corrosion, and materials production
2.3 Recognize the importance of controlling rates of reactions in technology

Fourth year

I. Energy and Society
1. Appreciate the importance of energy resources and energy used in development

1.1 Explain the role of energy in the development of human society
1.2 Discuss examples of the interaction among energy, technology and society (e.g. effects of energy in the environment, economic growth and energy demand; energy resources and energy crisis, etc.)
1.3 Infer that the total mass-energy in the universe in constant

II. Energy and environment

1. Understand the principles behind different optical measurement

1.1 investigate the reflection and refraction properties of light using simple optical devices (e.g. mirror and pinhole camera)
1.2 compare the similarities and differences of the principle of the camera and the human eye
1.3 explain the different kinds of eyesight defects and how lenses correct these defects
1.4 demonstrate total internal reflection, diffraction, interference, and polarization properties of light
1.5 explain and cite applications application of internal reflection, diffraction, interference, and polarization properties
1.6 setup a simple telescope and microscope
1.7 explain using ray diagrams how image is formed in a telescope and a microscope

2. appreciate the contribution of scientist in the development of the atomic theory and in understanding nuclear radiation

2.1 discuss the contributions of Becquerel, Pierre and Marie Curie on radioactivity
2.2 explain Einstein’s matter-energy equivalence
2.3 recognize the significance of the contributions of scientists in nuclear energy and related technology

3. understand basic concepts of atomic structure and nuclear radiation

3.3 discuss and compare the types and properties of ionizing radiation
3.4 interpret equations on nuclear reactions
3.5 calculate the mass defect and nuclear binding energy of an atom using the Einstein’s matter-energy equivalence

4. Appreciate the uses of nuclear radiation in the society

4.1 Explain the effects of these applications on living things and the environment
4.2 Evaluate the risks and benefits derived from the applications of nuclear radiation
4.3 Explain the principle of radiation safety and its importance in society

III. Energy in the home

1. Appreciate the contributions of Franklin, Coulomb, Volta, and Ohm in the understanding of electricity

1.1 Discuss the significance of the contributions of Franklin, Coulomb, Volta, Ohm and Filipino investors/scientists in electrical energy and related technology

2. Understanding the basic concepts and principles of electricity as used in home circuit connections

2.1 Trace the electrical connections from the meter to the appliances
2.2 Translate circuit diagrams into actual circuits and vice versa
2.3 Measure electric current through a conductor, voltage across it and its resistance
2.4 Determine experimentally interrelationships among current, voltage and its resistance
2.5 Apply Ohm’s Law to series and parallel circuits
2.6 Relate power to voltage and current
2.7 Discuss and practice safety measures in dealing with electricity
2.8 Compute electrical energy consumption
2.9 Suggest ways of using electrical energy wisely

IV. Energy and economy

1. Appreciate the role of energy generation, utilization and management and conservation of economic development

1.1 Describe the development of various energy resources in the country
1.2 Evaluate the risks and benefits associated with the energy development

2. Recognize the contributions Oersted, Ampere and Faraday to electromagnetic theory

2.1 Demonstrate Oerted’s discovery
2.2 Compare the contribution of Faraday and Oersted to electromagnetic theory
2.3 Discuss the significance of Faraday’s contribution to the development of human society
3. Demonstrate understanding of the technology of electrical energy generation and transmission and use

3.1 Explain electromagnetic induction
3.2 Discuss how electromagnetic induction is applied to generators and transformers
3.3 Differentiate a step-up from step-down transformer
3.4 Describe the energy transformation in electrical power plants
3.5 Describe the energy transformation in electrical energy from power station to the community
3.6 Discuss the working principle of an electric motor
3.7 Differentiate a motor from a generator
3.8 Discuss the transformation of electrical energy to different forms

V. Energy in transportation

1. Trace the development in transportation facilities from the animal-driven to engine-powered vehicles

1.1 Discuss how the steam engine ushered in the industrial revolution

2. Demonstrate understanding relationship among force, power, work and energy

2.1 Explain the relationship of kinetic energy and potential energy to work and cite applications
2.2 Apply the Law of Conservation of Mechanical Energy in different situations
2.3 Apply the Law of Thermodynamics as applied to heat engines

3. Understand concepts in force and motion as applied to land and air/sea transport

3.1 Apply Newton’s Law’s of Motion to land transportation
3.2 Explain road safety measures using the Law of Conservation of Momentum
3.3 Explain how the concepts of stress and strain, pressure and the Archimedes Principle apply to air and/or sea transport
IV. Energy in Information and Communication Technology

1. Trace the development of communication technologies

1.1 Recognize the contributions of Graham Bell, Maxwell, Hertz and Marconi in the development of telecommunications
1.2 Describe communication in terms of energy transfer and transformations
2. Understand the transformation of energy in a telephone

2.1 Compare transmission of sound through air its transmission through solids, liquids, and a vacuum
2.2 Discuss the factors that affect the speed of sound
2.3 Explain how sound waves are produced, transmitted and propagated
2.4 Discuss how information is transmitted and received in terms of energy transfers and transformation in telephone
3. Appreciate the properties of electromagnetic waves and how they are used in communication

3.1 Explain how electromagnetic waves are produced
3.2 Discuss the different regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, the properties and uses
4. Understand the principles involved in radio communications

4.1 Describe how radio signals are generated, transmitted and received
4.2 Explain how radio communication devices (e.g Cell phones, radio/TV receivers) work
4.3 Discuss how LASER and fiber optics had improved telecommunication
5. Appreciate rapid transmission of information brought about by developments in electronics technology

5.1 Differentiate between discrete electronic components and integrated circuits
5.2 Understand how logic circuits are used in common electronic devices
5.3 Differentiate between digital and analog methods in sending information

6. Understand how the information superhighway has influenced the affairs of daily living

6.1 Discuss how the information superhighway has influenced the affairs of daily living